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Firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides low-level control for a device’s specific hardware. Firmware can either provide a standardized operating environment for more complex device software (allowing more hardware-independence), or, for less complex devices, act as the device’s complete operating system, performing all control, monitoring, and data manipulation functions.

The firmware is typically stored in the flash ROM (Read Only Memory) of a hardware device. It can be erased and rewritten, which is how firmware updates occur. This type of software is designed to remain permanently on the device and is the first program that runs when the device is powered up.

Firmware can be found in a multitude of devices, such as:

  1. Consumer devices like digital watches, washing machines, or televisions.
  2. Computing devices like servers, desktops, and laptops.
  3. Components of computing devices like solid state drives (SSD), graphics cards, and motherboards.
  4. Networking equipment like routers, switches, or modems.
  5. IoT devices like smart home devices, health trackers, etc.

Updating firmware can improve device performance, add new features, or fix security vulnerabilities. However, because firmware is so integral to a device’s operation, incorrect updates can lead to device malfunction. Therefore, firmware updates are usually performed by expert users or professionals and often require specific tools or procedures.

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