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Jigsaw is a term that refers to the modularization system introduced in Java 9, a major release of the Java programming language. The primary goal of Jigsaw is to bring modularity to the Java platform, making it easier to develop, deploy, and maintain large-scale applications.

Key Features of Jigsaw:

  1. Module System: Jigsaw introduces the concept of modules, which are self-contained units of code that encapsulate functionality and dependencies. Each module contains its own set of classes and resources and specifies which other modules it requires or exports.
  2. Strong Encapsulation: With Jigsaw, modules can enforce strong encapsulation, which means that internal details of a module are hidden from other modules unless explicitly exported. This enhances security and prevents unwanted access to internal implementation details.
  3. Dependency Management: The module system allows developers to define clear and explicit dependencies between modules. This helps in managing the dependencies of large applications and ensures that the application only includes the necessary modules during compilation and runtime.
  4. Improved Performance: Jigsaw’s modularity can lead to improved performance by enabling better optimization and runtime analysis, as the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can make more efficient decisions based on module boundaries.

Benefits of Jigsaw:

  1. Scalability: Jigsaw makes it easier to develop and maintain large-scale applications by providing a structured and modular approach to code organization. This leads to more manageable codebases and easier collaboration among developers.
  2. Enhanced Security: The strong encapsulation provided by Jigsaw helps prevent unauthorized access to internal code, reducing the risk of security vulnerabilities.
  3. Dependency Clashes Mitigation: Jigsaw’s dependency management system helps avoid dependency clashes and makes it easier to track and manage external dependencies.
  4. Improved Performance: By enabling the JVM to perform better runtime analysis, Jigsaw can lead to improved performance in terms of startup time and overall execution.

Challenges and Adoption:

While Jigsaw brings significant benefits to the Java platform, it also introduces challenges, especially for existing applications and libraries that were not designed with modularity in mind. Migrating legacy code to a modular structure can be a complex task.

Furthermore, Jigsaw’s introduction faced resistance from some parts of the Java community due to concerns about backward compatibility and breaking changes. However, over time, many developers have embraced Jigsaw and started adopting it for new projects.


Jigsaw represents a major step forward in the evolution of the Java programming language by introducing native support for modularity. It enables developers to build more robust, scalable, and secure applications by organizing code into self-contained modules with explicit dependencies. While the adoption of Jigsaw has been gradual, its benefits are increasingly recognized, and it continues to shape the future of Java development.

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